We published The SOIL Guide to Ecological Sanitation in order to share our toilet designs, composting techniques, implementation strategies and lessons learned. It is our hope that this guide will be useful to people looking to build their own EcoSan toilets and composting waste treatment facilities in Haiti and around the world. It’s currently available in English and Haitian Creole on the SOIL EcoSan Education page. For more information about SOIL’s current activities, we also invite you to take a look at our most recent Annual Report.
We also recommend the following resources:
Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation. Richard G. Feachem, David J. Bradley, Hemda Garelick, D. Duncan Mara. World Health Organization, 1980.
Assessment of Social Acceptance and Scope of Scaling Up Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets in Kenya. S. M. N. Uddin, V. S. Muhandiki, J. Fukuda, M. Nakamura and A. Sakai. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 2012. Available at: www.iwaponline.com/washdev/002/washdev0020182.htm.
Can We Sell EcoSan Compost in Haiit? A Market Analysis Report. SOIL, 2011. Available at: http://susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=1173
Effects of Organic Matter Amendments on Net Primary Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in annual grasslands.Rebecca Ryals and Whendee L. Silver. 2013. Ecological Applications 23:46–59. Available at: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/12-0620.1
Evaluation of Microbial Health Risks Associated with the Reuse of Source-Separated Human Urine. Caroline Schönning. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control. EcoSanRes, 2002.
Evaluation of SOIL Latrine Waste Composting in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Berendes, Knee et. al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013. Available for download here.
Global Challenges in Water, Sanitation and Health. Christine L. Moe and Richard D. Rheingans. Journal of Water and Health 0.4.Suppl. Center for Global Safe Water, Rollins School of Public Health, IWA Publishing. Atlanta, 2006.
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. Caroline Schönning and Thor Axel Stenström. EcoSanRes Publication Series. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), 2004.
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta, and Greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. World Health Organization, 2006. Available at: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/wastewater/gsuweg4/en/index.html
Microbial Exposure and Health Assessments in Sanitation Technologies and Systems. Thor Axel Stenström, Razak Seidu, Nelson Ekane, and Christian Zurbrügg. Stockholm Environment Institute EcoSanRes Series, 2011.
On Manures–Their Use and Composition. Cuthbert William Johnson, Esq. The British Farmer’s Magazine, 1840. Available at Google Books
Operation and Mainenance of Sustainable Sanitation Systems. Version 2. Elke Müllegger, Günter Langergraber, Elisabeth Freiberger, Jennifer McConville, Margriet Samwel, Christian Rieck, Pippa Scott. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) c/o German Technical Cooperation Agency, Eschborn, 2010.
Practical Guidance on the Use of Urine in Crop Production. Anna Richert, Robert Gensch, Håkan Jönsson, Thor-Axel Stenström and Linus Dagerskog. Stockholm Environment Institute, EcoSanRes Series, 2010-1. Available at: www.ecosanres.org/pdf_files/ESR2010-1-PracticalGuidanceOnTheUseOfUrineInCropProduction.pdf
Pathogen Destruction and Solids Decomposition in Composting Latrines: Study of Fundamental Mechanisms and User Operation in Rural Panama. Jessica Mehl, Josephine Kaiser, Daniel Hurtado, Daragh A. Gibson, Ricardo Izurieta and James R. Mihelcic. Journal of Water and Health 09.1, 2011.
Paving the Way to Scaling up: Factors Contributing to the Adoption of Eco-San Toilets and Safety of Humanure in Malawi. Peter Morgan and Aselefech Tesfaye Mekonnen. SHARE Research, 2013. Available at: www.shareresearch.org/LocalResources/Morgan_and_Mekonnen_2013_Paving_the_Way_to_Scaling_Up_Ecosan.pdf
Public Awareness and Mobilisation for Ecosanitation. Madeleen Wegelin-Schuringa. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, 2000.
Technology Review of Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (UDDTs): Design Principles, Urine and Faeces Management. Christian Rieck, Dr. Elisabeth von Muench. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). Eschborn, May 2011. Available at: www.susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=874
The Potential of a Low Cost Technology for the Greywater Treatment. Francis W. Kariuki*, Kiplagat Kotut and Victor G. Ngángá. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, p32-39, 2011.
What Happens When the Pit is Full? Developments in On-Site Faecal Sludge Management (FSM). Water Information Network – South Africa (WIN-SA); Water Research Commission. FSM Seminar 14-15 March 2011, Durban, South Africa.
Ecological Sanitation: Revised and Enlarged. Uno Winblad, Mayling Simpson-Hébert, Editors and co-authors. Stockholm Environmental Institute, 2004. Available at: wiki.umn.edu/pub/EWB/Uganda/SIDAGuidebook.pdf
Handbook on Community-Led Total Sanitation. Kamal Kar with Robert Chambers. Plan International (UK), 2008. Available in English, French, Spanish, Hindi and Bengali (with links to Portugese and Khmer translations and Arabic available soon) at: www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/resource/handbook-community-led-total-sanitation
Low-Cost Sustainable Sanitation Solutions for Mindanao and the Philippines: A Practical Construction Field Guide. Robert Gensch, Analiza Miso, Gina Itchon, Elmer Sayre. Xavier University Press, 2010.
The Arborloo Book: How to Make a Simple Pit Toilet and Grow Trees or Make Humus for the Garden. Peter Morgan. 2004. Located at: www.ecosanres.org/pdf_files/PM_Report/Appendix1_The_Arborloo_book_a.pdf
The SOIL Guide to Ecological Sanitation. Sasha Kramer and Co-authors. SOIL (Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods), 2011. Available in English and Haitian Creole on the SOIL EcoSan Education page.
Where There is No Doctor. Hesperian Health Guides. Available in many languages at: hesperian.org/books-and-resources/Chapter 32: Water and Sanitation: Keys to Staying Healthy. Available at: en.hesperian.org/hhg/New_Where_There_Is_No_Doctor:Toilets_for_Health_(Sanitation)
UD Toilets and Composting Toilets in Emergency Settings. OXFAM Technical Brief – EcoSan Latrine Construction, 2009.
The Humanure Handbook: A Guide to Composting Human Manure, Third Edition. Joe Jenkins. Joe Jenkins, Inc., 2005. Available in English, French, Spanish, Finnish, German, Hebrew, Korean, Italian, Mongolian, Vietnamese, Norwegian, Slovenian, Cambodian and Portugese at: www.josephjenkins.com
The Rodale Book of Composting: Easy Methods for Every Gardener. Gracy Gershuny. Rodale Books, 1992.
The Challenges of Urban Ecological Sanitation: Lessons from the Erdos Eco-Town Project. Arno Rosemarin, Jennifer McConville, Amparo Flores and Zhu Qiang. Practical Action Publishing, 2012.
Shit Matters: The Potential of Community-Led Total Sanitation. Edited by Lyla Mehta and Synne Movik. Practical Action Publishing, 2010.
Ecological Sanitation Research Programme : : www.ecosanres.org
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation: Water, Sanitation & Hygiene : : www.gatesfoundation.org/watersanitationhygiene/Pages/home.aspx
Centre Régional pour l’Eau Potable et l’Assainissement à Faible Coût (CREPA or Center for Low Cost Water and Sanitation) : : www.reseaucrepa.org
Deustche Gesellschaft fϋr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) : : www.gtz.de/en/themen/8524.htm
Direction Nationale de l’Eau Potable et de l’Assainissement (DINEPA) : : www.dinepa.gouv.ht
Give Love : : givelove.org
Hesperian Health Guides : : hesperian.org
Public Hygeine Lets Us Stay Human (PHLUSH) : : phlush.org
Humanitarian Response Haiti : : haiti.humanitarianresponse.info
Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) : : www.susana.org
Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management : : www.sswm.info
U.S. Composting Council : : compostingcouncil.org
World Toilet Organization (WTO) : : www.worldtoilet.org/wto
Sustainable Sanitation Conference 2012
In June 2012 SOIL and UNICEF co-hosted the Sustainable Sanitation Conference, held in Port au Prince, Haiti. The conference was attended by over 150 people, representing 55 organizations. To review some of the information presented at the two-day conference, click the links below.
Introduction Tim Forster, Independent Consultant
“National Sanitation Strategy” Edwige Petit, DINEPA
“Global Overview of Sustainable Sanitation Experiences” Anthony Kilbride, Independent Consultant
“Experiences with Double Vault Composting Toilets in Croix-des-Bouquets” Vakenson Sanon, French Red Cross
“Arborloos in Rural Areas of Haiti” Gigi Pomerantz, Youthaiti
“Experiences with Ecological Sanitation at Resettlement Sites” Patrick Clervil and Joseph Pierre-Juste, Concern Worldwide
“SOIL’s Experiences in Ecological Sanitation: Adapting a Sanitation Model to Address Past Failures” Baudeler Magloire and Erinold Frederic, SOIL
“Social Aspects of Community Latrines in Cite-Soleil” Junior Mercier, IOM
“Sustainable Sanitation in Schools” Lucho Jean, Independent Consultant
“Community Managed Bio-Digestor Units” Valmir Fachini, Viva Rio
“Kaka Kapab! SOIL’s Experiences with Ecological Waste Treatment and Compost Reuse” Jean Marie Noel and Romel Toussaint, SOIL
“Existing Research on Pathogen Die-Off in Ecological Sanitation Systems” Sasha Kramer and Nick Preneta, SOIL, with Joaneson Lacour, University of Quisquaya
Download the Lessons Learned Document
Check out Sanitasyon Ekolojik, a film by Raphael Lubin.