"SOIL's Experiences in Ecological Sanitation: Adapting a Sanitation Model to Address Past Failures" Baudeler Magloire and Erinold Frederic, SOIL

This is a review of one presentation from the Sustainable Sanitation Conference, co-hosted by SOIL and UNICEF in June 2012. For an introduction and general overview of the conference, or to find information about other presentations, click here.









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SOIL’s Experiences in Ecological Sanitation: Adapting a Sanitation Model to Address Past Failures

Baudeler Magloire and Erinold Frederic of SOIL presented the evolution of SOIL’s ecological sanitation interventions since 2006.
The presentation began with a discussion of SOIL’s experience with permanent double vault UD toilets for public use, with an exploration of why this system has largely been a failure in northern Haiti. The failure was due in large part to the use of volunteer-based community management. The discussion then turned to SOIL’s emergency response activities in Port au Prince and how the double vault design was modified to meet the needs of high density IDP communities through the use of a drum based collection system and paid management.
The discussion concluded with SOIL’s strategy for moving forward, which includes modification of double vault toilets in urban areas to include the drum based collection system, increased focus on the development of household sanitation systems, and the creation of a business model for collection and treatment of wastes.

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Eksperyans SOIL te fè nan Sanitasyon Ekolojik: Adaptasyon yon Modèl Sanitasyon pou fè Fas ak Echèk Pase

Baudeler Magloire ansanm ak Erinold Frederic ki soti nan SOIL te prezante evolisyon entèvansyon sanitasyon ekolojik SOIL depi ane 2006.
Prezantasyon an kòmanse ak yon diskisyon sou ekperyans SOIL te fè ak twalèt UD a chanm doub pou sèvis piblik epi chache rezon ki te fè sistèm sa a te yon gwo echèk nan zòn nò Ayiti. An gwo echèk la te fèt paske se volontè nan kominote a ki tap jere sistèm nan . Apre sa, diskisyon an vire sou aktivite an repons ak ijans SOIL tap mennen nan Pòtoprens epi kòman yo te modifye twalèt a chanm doub la an koleksyon ak doum pito, yon fason pou satisfè bezwen kominote kan deplase ki gen anpil moun ladan yo .
Diskisyon an fini sou estrateji SOIL, pral mete sou pye poul avanse, sa te gen ladanl, modifye twalèt a chanm doub la, nan bouk yo, pou mete ladanl yon sistèm kòlèk ak doum, konsantre sou devlopman sistèm sanitasyon nan fwaye, ansanm ak kreyasyon yon modèl biznis pou koleksyon ak trètman kaka.

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Les Expériences de SOIL dans l’Assainissement Écologique: Adapter un Modèle D’assainissement pour Éviter de Reproduire les Échecs Passés

Baudeler Magloire et Erinold Frederic de SOIL ont présenté l’évolution des interventions de SOIL dans l’assainissement écologique depuis 2006.
La présentation a commencé avec une discussion sur les expériences de SOIL avec les toilettes UD à double cave permanentes pour une utilisation publique, avec une exploration des raisons qui ont conduit à l’échec sur une grande échelle, de ce système dans le nord d’Haïti. L’échec a été du, en grande partie à une gestion basée sur l’emploi de volontaires originaires de la communauté. La discussion s’est tourné ensuite vers les activités de SOIL en réponse à l’urgence à Port-au-Prince et comment la toilette à double cave fut modifiée en vue de répondre aux besoins des denses communautés de déplacées grâce à un système de collecte des récipients et une gestion payante.

La discussion de SOIL se clôtura sur les stratégies pour aller de l’avant, incluant les modifications apportées dans les toilettes à double cave dans les zones urbaines pour introduire un système de collecte de tonneaux, augmentant l’attention accordée aux systèmes d’assainissement des ménages, et la création d’un modèle d’affaire pour la collecte et traitement des excréments.

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SOIL te komanse travay an Ayiti nan 2006. Oganizasyon nan te komanse travay la nan no d’Ayiti epi pandan epok 2006 – 2009 nou te konstwi 54 twalet piblik ak seperasyon pipi a, kom ekzamp ke ou we nan foto sa. Pati sa nan prezantasyon nan ap fokis sou kote nou reyisi ak sistem sa ni kote nou echwe e ki jan sa nou te aprann pandan peryod sa te enfòme travay ki te vini apre.

SOIL has been working in Haiti since 2006. The organization began work in northern Haiti and, from 2006 – 2009, constructed 54 public urine-diversion toilets like the one pictured here. This part of the presentation will focus on the successes and failures of this system and how the lessons learned in the first 3 years informed our work moving forward.

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SOIL te komanse nan 2006 ak konstwiksyon sit demonstrasyon yo nan lekol yo. Sit sa yo te gen twa tip twalet konpos: abòloo, twalet konpos ak de (2) twou, e twalet sech (sa ki separe pipi a). Sit sa yo se pou moun nan kominotè yo te kapab ba nou empresyon pa yo sou chak kalite twalet epi chwazi sa ki pi bon pou sitiasyon pa yo.

SOIL began in 2006 by building demonstration sites in schools where 3 different kinds of composting toilet (arborloo, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilet) were constructed so that the community could provide feedback and select the design that worked best for their situation.

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Preske tout moun ki te ba nou empresyon pa yo nan sit demonstrasyon yo te chwazi twalet sech la. Se pou sa majorite twalet ke SOIL te konstwi pandan premye 3 zan yo mache nan model sa. Tout twalet piblik ke nou te konstwi nan no a pandan peryod sa te gen de (2) chamn anba, yon ki sevi a la fwa. Pipi a te tonbe nan yon doum pou ke moun yo ka sevi si yo vle. Men si yo pa vle, gen yon lot tiyo ki drene pipi nan yon fos pedi le nivo pipi rive ase wo nan doum deye a.

Nearly all of the people who gave us their feedback preferred the urine diversion toilet so this was the design that we moved forward with over the next three years. The public toilets that we constructed had two chambers underneath, with only one being used at any given time. The urine was collected in a drum behind the toilet with an overflow pipe to allow urine to flow into a soak-away if not being used.

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Men yon ekzamp de yon twalet piblik nan yon zon riral.  Tout twalet ke SOIL te konstwi pandan peryod sa te konstwi apre yon oganizayon kominotè te voye yon let demann ba nou.  Akò nou te gen ak oganizasyon yo se ke se yo menm ki t ap responsab pou jere twalet yo volontèman.  Menm si sa te pi byen mache nan zon riral pase nan gwo vil yo, nou te jwenn ke majorite twalet yo pa te byen fonksyone kek mwa apre yo te louvri.

Here is an example of a public toilet in a rural area.  All of the toilet constructed during this time period were built at the request of community organizations who said they would be responsible for the management.  Although this tended to work better in rural areas than urban, we found that after the first few months the toilets began to fall into disrepair.

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Pwoblem ki rive ak fè moun yo jere twalet yo volontèman te pi mal nan zon irban yo, kote gen anpil moun ki sevi twalet yo chak jou. Lè nou gade tout twalet piblik ke nou te konstwi nan premye ane yo, nou ka di onetman ke se anviwon 20% ki toujou mache jodi a. Kounye a SOIL pa kouri konstwi twalet piblik anko si se yon sistem de jerans volontè. Sel eksepsyon se si oganizasyon kominotè ka prezante nou yon bon plan pou yon sistem jerans dirab.

The problem of voluntary community management was even more pronounced in urban areas, where the number of people using the toilet was higher. In all approximately 20% of the toilets that SOIL constructed from 2006 – 2009 are still functioning and SOIL no longer constructs public toilets to be voluntarily managed by community groups unless they present a solid management plan.

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Nan Janvye 2012, SOIL te voye yon ekip Potopwens pou asiste ak ijans ki te swiv trembleman an. Nan mwa mas Oxfam GB te finanse SOIL pou nou konstwi 200 twalet ekolojik nan 32 kan deplase yo nan vil la. Pati sa nan prezantasyon an ap fokis sou ki jan SOIL te modifye model twalet nou te gen nan no a pou li vin apwopriye pou yon sitiasyon ijans nan yon zon irban.

In January 2010, SOIL sent a team to Port au Prince to assist with earthquake relief. In March Oxfam GB funded the construction of 200 emergency ecological toilets in 32 camps around the city. This part of the presentation will focus on how SOIL modified the design which we had been using in Cap Haitien to make it appropriate for an urban emergency setting.

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Premyèman nou pa te ka konstwi gwo twalet an blok nan yon kan tanporè. Pou evite sa nou te konstwi twalet yo ak pwela ak bwa, pou li ka deplase fasil apre moun yo kite kan nan. Konsa yo mwens chè tou.

It would not be appropriate to construct a toilet using cement block in a temporary camp, so the first modification that SOIL made was to construct the toilets using wood and tarps. This way they are cheaper to construct and easy to remove when people leave the camp.

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Pi gwo modifikasyon ke nou fè se pou chanje sistem 2 kav pou ranplase’l ak yon sistem doum. Nou mete yon doum 15 galon anba twalet la pou kaka ka tonbe ladan. Chak fwa li plen moun kap jere twalet la ranplase’l ak yon lot, epi bouche pou stoke’l tout pre twalet la. Chak semen nou pase pran doum yo e vide yo nan yon sit konpostaj pou tretman.

The other modification, and perhaps the most important from a functional standpoint, was changing from a cement double chamber under the toilet to a drum system. A 15 gallon drum is placed below the toilet and replaced each time it is full, sealed with a lid for local storage and then collected weekly for treatment at an offsite composting facility.

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Okomansman nou te mete ti bokit yo pou lave men a kote tout twalet yo. Sa yo te disparet fasil epi apre yon ti tan nou te ranplase yo ak yon chatodo 125 galon ki sekirize ak beton.

All of the toilets in the camps were initially equipped with small handwashing buckets which were easily stolen and later replaced by rainwater collection systems with a secured 125 gallon water tank.

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Petet pi gwo diferans ant twalet ijans yo ki nan Potoprans ak twalet piblik ke nou te fe nan no a, se sistem jerans la. Apre trembleman an, oganizasyon yo te gen kob pou yo peye moun pou jere twalet piblik nan kan yo. Model peye a te byen mache lè ou kompare’l ak model volontè a. Kounye a SOIL ap pran egzamp sa pou esaye devlope yon model pou jere twalet nan nò a kom yon biznis.

Perhaps the most important difference between the emergency toilets and SOIL’s previous model in Cap Haitien was the management. After the emergency people were paid to manage the toilets in each camp where we constructed them. This paid management model worked excellent in contrast to the voluntary model. This has led us to rethink our toilets in the north to try to develop business strategies for managing them.

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Apre 1 an SOIL te komanse ranplase pwela yo ak tol pou fè twalet yo pi resistan pandan sezon siklon nan.

After one year SOIL replaced the tarps with metal sheeting in the remaining camps to make the toilets more durable for hurricane season.

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Akoz gran kantite twalet potab yo ki te vin nan peyi apre trembleman an, e paske yo vreman che pou jere, SOIL te vin ak yon ide pou modifye yo pou fè yo vin twalet ekolojik ak sistem doum yo. Konsa yo mwens chè pou jere epi yo pa santi menm jan ak majorite twalet potab yo. SOIL komanse sevi sa yo nan kek kan ki gen espas kote 4-5 fanmi ka pataje yon twalet, epi twalet yo rete lok. Chak fanmi gen yon kle men nou pa peye moun yo pou jere twalet kominal yo, se fanmi yo ki responsab.

Given the large number of portable toilets imported into the country after the earthquake and the high costs of maintaining them, SOIL developed a way to modify them to make them ecological toilets with a drum system. This not only reduces smells from the toilets but also makes them cheaper to operate. SOIL is now using these toilets for communal toilets in several camps. Communal means that the toilets are shared by several families and are locked. No toilet manager is paid to maintain these toilets.

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Chak semen baskil SOIL la pase nan chak sit pou ramase doum ki plen yo.

Each week the SOIL “poopmobile” comes around to each of the sites and collects the full drums.

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Baskil la depoze doum plen yo nan yon sit konpostaj kote nou vide yo, lave yo, epi retounen yo nan sit yo pou yo ka sevi anko. Baskil la pote bagas kann nan sit yo tou pou asire ke moun yo toujou gen yon bagay disponib pou kouvri twalet ki nan doum yo.

The truck drops the drums off at a centralized compost site where they are emptied into bins, cleaned and returned to the sites for reuse. Cover material (sugarcane bagas) is also transported to the sites weekly to ensure that the toilet users have an adequate supply.

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Alò, sa k’ap pase ak tout twalet nan nò yo ke SOIL te konstwi 2006 – 2009? Ki jan SOIL ap avanse ak twalet sa yo? Pati sa ap fokis sou ki jan n ap esaye fe twalet piblik yo fonksyone ankò nan nò a.

So what has happened to all of those public toilets in the north. How is SOIL moving forward with them? This section will focus on our ongoing efforts to make the toilets that we built from 2006 – 2009 functional.

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Pou fe twalet yo fonksyonal ankò se pa yon bagay ki fasil. Premyè strateji ke SOIl genyen se pou reyini ak kominotè yo anko epi chwazi yon moun nan kominotè a k’ap responsab pou twalet la. Apre moun sa chwazi, SOIL siyen yon kontra ave’l ki di ke se yo menm e pa SOIL ki responsab pou jere twalet la. Finalman SOIL fe tout reparasyon ki bezwen fet nan twalet yo epi repentire yo pou retire logo SOIL la. Apre sa SOIL pral travay ansam ak kek oganizasyon lokal pou we si nou pa ke devlope yon model d’afe pou jere twalet ki nan mache yo.

Making the toilets functional again is not easy. SOIL’s first strategy is to truly ensure that they have been properly passed off to the community, so that it is clear that ongoing maintenance is not SOIL’s responsibility. After community meetings in each of the areas that we have toilets the community has chosen a person to be responsible for the toilet. SOIL painted over our logos and signed a handover agreement with the person who is responsible for the toilet. SOIL will work with several groups to try to develop business model for managing toilet in markets.

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SOIL te gen 3 twalet nan yon zon Okap ki rele Shada kote kolera envayi zon nan anpil. Nan zon sa, kom yon entèvansyon ijans, SOIL te chwazi peye yon moun pou jere blok sanitè sa yo. Rezon nou ka fe sa nan Shada e pa nan lot zon yo se paske telman nesesite a anpil, epi akoz nou pral lanse yon pwoje twalet lakay nan zon sa yo, ki vle di ke twalet piblik yo pa bezwen rete pou tou tan.

SOIL had 3 public toilets in a neighborhood in Cap Haitien called Shada. Because of the seriousness of the cholera epidemic in Shada, SOIL decided to develop these toilets into sanitary blocks and pay toilet managers to clean the toilets. This is possible in Shada and not in other areas because SOIL is planning to launch a household toilet project in this neighborhood so we hope that the public toilets will not be necessary in the future.

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Twalet sa yo gen yon chanm pou gason, yon chanm pou fi, ak yon twalet pou ti moun, yon gwo sistem lavaj men ki plen ak dlo lapli epi douche piblik yo.

These toilets have a room for men and a room for women, as well as a children’s toilet, large handwashing unit and showers.

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Akoz eksperyans ke nou te fe ak twalet ijans yo nan Potopwens, nou te deside modifye twalet Shada yo pou yo ka gen yon sistem doum. Shada se yon zon ki gen anpil moun e 80% pa gen yon twalet. Se twop moun pou yon sistem 2 kav poutet twalet la te ranpli two rapid san li pa te gen tan ase dekonpoze. Chak senmenn nou pran doum yo pou trete yo nan sit konpostaj nan Nò a. Sa se yon bon sistem pou zon iben yo epi moun nan Shada yo pi renmen’l.

Because of our experience in Port au Prince with a drum system, SOIL decided to modify the toilets in Shada to a drum system. This is because Shada is such a densely populated neighborhood that the chambers beneath the toilets were filling up too quickly and we were having to empty them before they had properly decomposed. The drums are collected weekly and taken to the compost site in the north and the community much prefers this system.

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Sa se yon twalet ki fet pou timoun yo nan Shada. Twalet sa yo pa separe pipi ak twalet paske sistem sa yon ti jan difisil pou ti moun piti.

This is one of the children’s toilets in Shada. These toilets do not separate urine and feces as the separating seat is difficult for little kids.

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Foto sa se yon moun k ap retire yon doum nan yon twalet pou timoun nan Shada. Menm si twalet sa yo pa separe pipi ak kaka, yo toujou sevi ak menm sistem doum.

This is a photo of someone removing a drum from the kids toilet in the toilet block in Shada. Though the toilets are not separating, they do use a drum system.

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Sa se rezon ke nou te chanje sistem 2 kav pou fe’l yon sistem doum nan Shada. Sa se premye fwa nou te vide youn nan kav yo epi paske telman moun yo t’ap sevi twalet yo ke kav la te gen 6 mwa chita selman avan nou te vide l, epi li toujou te gen likid ladan.

This is the reason we switched to a drum system in Shada. This was one of the first times we emptied one of the toilets when it still had a system with two cement chambers beneath the toilet. Because so many people had been using the toilet, the cave was only sealed for 6 months before we had to break into it, at that point it was still quite moist.

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Pati sa ap fokis sou twalet (2) de kav ke SOIL toujou ap konstwi.

This section will focus on SOIL’s ongoing construction of public toilets with double chambers underneath.

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SOIL selman konstwi 3 twalet 2 kav nan 3 ane ki sot pase la. Twalet sa se nan yon sant kominotè kote yon deja bay nou prev ke yo ka byen jere twalet yo. SOIL te travay ak oganizasyon lokal sa depi 5 an epi nou konnen sa yo ka fe. Jis kounye a yo byen jere twalet sa.

SOIL has only constructed 3 double vault toilets in the past 3 years and these have only been in areas where there is a small group of users and a solid community management plan. This toilet is in a community center in Cite Soleil and is managed by a local organization. SOIL has worked with this group for over 5 years and they have proved their management capacity.

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SOIL ap travay kounye a pou devlope yon sistem twalet lakay kote moun yo peye yon ti kob chak mwa pou jerans la ka dirab.

SOIL’s newest project which we are focusing most of our efforts on is the development of a household toilet, with a business plan for management.

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Men yon ekzamp de ki jan sistem twalet lakay ap mache. Twalet la gen yon doum ki anba l e chak senmenn gen yon machin ki pase pran sak plen yo. Famni yo peye yon ti kob chak mwa pou kouvri sevis la epi doum yo ale nan sit konpos la kote nou ka transfòme’l nan konpos ki ka vann. Sistem vann ka ede redwi fre a pou moun ki ladan, tou.

Here is an example of how the household toilet will work. The toilet has a drum beneath it which will be collected weekly for a small fee. The poop will be converted to compost in a composting site and then can be sold to help subsidize the cost of the service.

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Sa se youn nan premye model twalet lakay ke SOIL te gen nan biwo Okap la.

This is one of the first household toilet models at our office in Cap Haitien.

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Sa se yon nan pi nef model de twalet lakay ki gen yon bokit 5 galon ak yon ti kontenè pou pipi a.

This is one of the newer models of the household toilet with a 5 gallon bucket and small urine container underneath.

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Sa se yon 3eme model twalet ki te fet pa kek etidyan Stanford University. N ap teste model sa kounye a nan Shada.

This is a third model of the hosuehold toilet which was designed by several graduate students at Stanford. This model is currently being tested in Shada.

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SOIL ap teste kek model twalet ki pa separe pipi ak kaka pou we si moun yo pito yon twalet ki separe oubyen yon ki melanje tout bagay.

SOIL is also testing some non-separating household toilets in Shada to see if people prefer those with urine diversion.

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Sa se yon twalet ki te fet pa Concern Worldwide nan 1500 shelte tranzisyonel nan Potopwens. SOIL te fe yon konsiltasyon ak Concern pou we si nou pa te ka devlope ide sistem kote moun yo peye yon fre chak mwa pou sevis doum nan. Kounye a nou gen 23 fanmi k ap peye 50 HTG chak mwa e SOIL ap travay pou ogmante kantite fanmi sa yo.

This is a toilet that we designed by Concern Worldwide and installed in 1500 transitional shelters in Port au Prince. The toilet has a drum system underneath. SOIL has been consulting with Concern to try to develop a system where people pay small monthly fees for bucket collection. There are currently 23 families that are paying 50 HTG per month and SOIL is working to increase this number of families.

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