"Kaka Kapab! SOIL’s Experiences with Ecological Waste Treatment and Compost Reuse" Jean Marie Noel and Romel Toussaint, SOIL

This is a review of one presentation from the Sustainable Sanitation Conference, co-hosted by SOIL and UNICEF in June 2012. For an introduction and general overview of the conference, or to find information about other presentations, click here.

  • English

    Kaka Kapab! SOIL’s Experiences with Ecological Waste Treatment and Compost Reuse

    Jean Marie Noel and Romel Toussaint from SOIL gave an overview of SOIL’s experiences composting human excreta and subsequently re-using the finished compost as an agricultural input.
    SOIL is currently operating the two largest composting sites in Haiti. The sites are currently treating over 3,000 gallons of human waste per week, from more than 10,000 people in Cap Haitien and Port au Prince. The human waste is being transformed into compost, which is being distributed for agriculture and reforestation projects.
    The waste treatment component of the discussion focused primarily on SOIL’s centralized thermophilic composting sites in Port au Prince and Limonade. The agronomists outlined the sites’ designs and maintenance principles. The second part of the presentation focused on SOIL’s experiences in using SOIL compost for agriculture, including results from experimental gardens and a brief overview of various contexts where compost use is appropriate.

  • Kreyòl Ayisyen

    Kaka Kapab! Eksperyans SOIL ak Trètman Ekolojik Kaka ak Reitilizasyon Konpòs

    Jean Marie Noel ansanm ak Romel Toussaint ki soti nan SOIL bay yon apèsi sou eksperyans SOIL fèt ak konpòs ki fèt ak kaka moun epi reitilizasyon konpòs ki fini kòm angrè.
    Nan moman saa SOIL ap jere de pi gwo sit konpostaj nan peyi Ayiti. Sit sa yo trete aktyèlman plis pase 3,000 galon kaka chak semèn, pou plis pase 10,000 moun kap viv swa Kapayisyen ou byen Pòtoprens. Yo transfòme kaka moun nan an konpòs, epi yo distribiyel pou fè agrikilti ansanm ak pwojè forè.
    Pati diskisyon sou konpozisyon trètman kaka, te konsantrel sou sit konpostaj tèmofilik SOIL ki nan Pòtoprens ak Limonad. Agwonòm yo te mete aksan sou achitekti sit yo ansanm ak prensip antretyen yo. Dezyèm pati prezantasyon an te konsantre sou eksperyans SOIL fè nansèvi ak konpòs SOIL (Mwayen moun viv òganik entegre dirab) nan agrikilti, li te gen ladanl rezilta plizyè jaden eksperimantal nan plizyè kontèks yo te sèvi ak konpòs fason apwopriye.

  • Français

    Kaka Kapab! Les Expériences de SOIL dans le Traitement Écologique des Excréta et la Réutilisation du Compost

    Jean Marie Noël et Romel Toussaint de SOIL ont donné un aperçu des expériences de SOIL avec le compostage avec excréta humain et l’utilisation du compost fini comme intrant agricole.
    SOIL est en train de gérer les deux plus grands sites de compostage en Haïti. Les sites traitent couramment plus de 3,000 gallons (11000 litres) d’excréments humains par semaine, provenant de plus de 10,000 personnes au Cap Haïtien et à Port-au-Prince. L’excrément humain est transformé en compost, qui est distribué pour des projets d’agriculture et de reboisement.
    La discussion sur la composante du traitement des excrétas s’est centralisé sur les sites de compostage thermophilique de SOIL à Port-au-Prince et à Limonade. Les agronomes ont présenté les conceptions des sites et les principes d’entretien. La deuxième partie de la présentation s’est focalisé sur les expériences de SOIL dans l’utilisation des composts SOIL pour l’agriculture, y compris des résultats de jardins expérimentaux et un bref aperçu de plusieurs contextes dans lesquels le compost était utilisé de manière appropriée.

 

 

 

 

This presentation will start with a discussion of how it is possible to transform human wastes into nutrient rich soil which is free of pathogens.

Prezantasyon sa ap komanse ak yon ti pale sou ki jan pou transfome kaka nan yon bel tè ki rich an eleman e ki pa gen mikwob ki ta fe moun malad.

 

Many of the presentations in this conference have focused on toilets with double chambers for treating wastes. However, we also talked about the risks that the wastes in the chambers are not fully treated and when emptied can still contain pathogens. This is the reason that SOIL always recommends that if the wastes removed from the toilet are to be used in vegetable gardening, they should be treated using some sort of a secondary composting process.

Nou te we plizye pwezentasyon sou sistem de (2) kav yo e ki jan sa ka komanse trete kaka. Maten an Sasha te pale de kek pwoblem ak sistem sa pou vreman fin tiye tout patojen. Se pwoblem sa yo ke fè nou menm nan SOIL nou toujou bay rekomandasyon pou fè yon konpostaj sekondè ak twalet ki soti nan twalet 2 kav yo avan nou komanse sevi’l nan jaden, sitou si objektif se pou vann konpos pou yon lot moun ka sevi’l.

 

One option is to build a small compost bin behind the toilet so that it is not necessary to transport the wastes far for secondary composting. When the toilet is emptied the wastes can be mixed with food scraps and other organic yard wastes and watered with urine to decompose more quickly.

Yon posibilite se pou kreye yon espas pou konpostaj deyè twalet la pou li pa oblije transpote lwen pou konposte’l. Ou ka melanje sa ki sot nan kav ansanm ak po manje yo ak lot bagay oganik epi wouze’l ak pipi pou’l dekompoze pi vit.

 

This presentation will focus on large offsite composting facilities as this is how SOIL treats the majority of wastes from our toilets.

Prezantasyon sa ap fokis plis sou gwo sit konpostaj yo paske se konsa ke SOIL trete majorite nan kaka ki soti nan twalet pa nou yo.

 

Gen plizye kote ki fè konpos tradisyonel an Ayiti. Foto sa se yon sit konpostaj toupre Okap nan tè Grand Marnier. Konpos sa fet ak kaka bef ak bagas kann e yo sevi’l pou fètilize plantasyon zoranj pa yo. Pou tet sistem sa pa gen patojen moun ladan, plan sit la senp e li pa nesesè pou konpos la rive nan yon tanperati ki wo.

There are many examples of traditional composting in Haiti. This photo is from a compost site in northern Haiti just outside of Cap Haitien that is managed by Gran Marnier. The compost is made from cow manure and sugarcane bagas and is used to fertilize the orange plantations. Because this system does not contain pathogens from human wastes it is not necessary to obtain high temperatures throughout the pile so only a simple design is required.

 

Gen kek egzamp de gwo sit konpostaj ki sèvi pou konposte deche moun tou, kom sit sa ki se nan Kalifòni. Sit sa trete tout deche plis pase 1,000,000 moun ki viv nan Los Angeles.

There are several examples in the world of where human wastes are treated by composting. Perhaps the largest is this facility in California which composts bio-sludge from more than 1,000,000 Los Angeles residents.

 

Pou asire ke tout patojen ki fè moun yo malad pral mouri, li nesesè pou fè tanperati konpos la monte jis 50 degre C/122 F pou omwen 1 senmenn, apre standa OMS yo. Pou reyalize yon tanperati konsa fok ou kreye yon anviwonman ki bon pou mikwob ki fe dekonpozisyon an. Fok sit konpos la fet yon jan ki pemet ke yo jwenn ase oksijen, dlo ak yon balans kabon:azot ki anviwon 25:1.

In order to kill all human pathogens compost piles need to maintain a temperature of over 50 C/122 F for at least one week according to WHO guidelines. To obtain these temperatures it is necessary to have an environment that is conducive to the growth of aerobic decomposers. Piles must be designed to have enough oxygen, water and an carbon to nitrogen ration of approximately 25:1.

 

Men 4 ekzamp de sit konpostaj pay SOIL yo an Ayiti. Nou toujou ap travay pou develope yon pi bon bak pou kreye pi bon kondisyon pou mikwob yo ka fè dekonpozisyon.

Here are 4 examples of SOIL’s composting sites in Haiti. We are still working on modifying the design of the baks to obtain ideal composting conditions.

Pwochen pati nan prezantasyon sa ap fokis sou pwosesis konpostaj la nan sit SOIL yo. Premye etap se lè baskil SOIL la vin depoze doum ki plen nan sit la 3 fwa pa senmenn.

This next part of the presentation will be an overview of how the composting process works at SOIL’s sites. The first step is that the drums are delivered to the site by the SOIL poopmobile, 3 times per week.

Apre sa ekip konpos la vide doum yo nan bak yo epi kouvri yo ak bagas kann. Foto sa te fet yon jou kote nou te fe tout ekip la net al vide nan sit la. Se yon jan pou fe nou tout sonje ki travay ki pi enpotant pou operasyon SOIL yo kontinye byen.

The drums are then dumped into the compost bins and covered with sugarcane bagas. This photo is from a team dumping day, which we do from time to time to remind us all of the work it takes to make our operation function smoothly.

Apre bak la fin plen nou kouvri ak yon bon kantite bagas pou asire ke mouch yo pa poze sou li, li pa santi epi li ka kenbe yon tanperati ki wo.

After the bin is full it is covered with at least 1 foot of bagas to enure that flies cannot access the fresh feces, reduce smells and insulate the pile to maintain the internal high temperatures.

After the drums are emptied they are washed and rinsed in a ?? % chorine solution.

Apre doum yo fin vide nou lave ak rense yo ak yon solisyon dlo ki gen ?? % klor ladan.

Apre sa ekip la mete doum pwop yo nan baskil la epi li voye yo retounen nan sit yo pou yo ka sevi anko.

After the drums are clean the drum team loads them into the poopmobile so they can be returned to the sites for reuse.

Apre bak la fin plen, konpos la rete andan pou omwen 4 mwa, pandan tan sa nou byen swiv evolisyon pa’l.

Once the bin is filled the compost stays in the bin for at least 4 months and is closely monitored.

Chak 2-3 jou nou vin pran tanperati yo pou nou ka we ki jan materyel la ap chofe nan diferan pati bak yo.

Every 2-3 days we take the temperature of the compost to monitor temperatures throughout the pile.

Sa montre ki jan tanperati chanje pandan yon peryod de 4 mwa. Pou tiye tout patojen yo fok li pi wo pase 122 F pandan yon semen. Linn wouj la se 122 F e ou ka we ke nan bak sa konpos la te kenbe yon tanperati pi eleve pase sa pandan plis pase 1 mwa.

This graph shows how the temperature in a compost bin changes over a 4 month period. The red line represents 122 F which is the temperature needed to kill pathogens. According to the WHO human waste must maintain a temperature of over 122 F for at least 1 week to kill all pathogens. In this graph you can see that the compost pile maintained a temperature above 122 F for over 1 month.

Nan sit konpostaj SOIL la nou kite konpos nan bak yo pou omwen 3 mwa epi pandan peryod sa nou pran tanperati yo chak 2-3 jou. Le tanperati a komanse desan nou deplase konpos la pou mete l nan pil pou li ka fin dekonpoze.

In SOIL’s compost sites we keep the compost in the bins for at least 3 months, during which time we take the temperatures every 2-3 days. When the temperatures start to go down the compost is moved into windrows to finish decomposing.

Bel konpos!

The beautiful finished compost!

Pati sa ap fokis sou reitilizasyon konpos nan jaden ak pepinyè yo.

This section will focus on the reuse of the compost in gardens ad nurseries.

Men tout ekip SOIL la ap mete konpos nan jaden nou a.

Here is the whole SOIL team out applying compost to our experimental garden.

Jaden eksperimental yo se pou sevi kom yon demonstrasyon ki jan konpos la afekte pwodiksyon agrikol la.

Experimental gardens are used to demonstrate the effects of the compost on plant growth.

Men yon egzamp yon eksperyans SOIL te fè nan jaden Okap la. Nou te mete kanpe 4 pasèl eksperimantasyon ki gen dimansyon 10m x 10m konsa yon pasèl ap realize ak mayi ak konpòs, yon lòt ak mayi ak pipi, yon lòt ankò ak mayi ak konpòs ak pipi, yon lòt ankò ap sèvi pou pasèl temwen (pasèl sa pap gen konpòs, pap gen pipi)

Here is an example of an experimental set up for a demonstration garden at SOIL’s site in Cap Haitien. There were 4 experimental parcels each 10 m2. The four treatments were compost alone, compost + urine, urine alone and a control (with no urine or compost).

Men jaden yo apre 2 mwa.

Here are the gardens after 2 months of growth.

Sa se mwayen wotè pye yo pou chak tretman.

The average height of corn in each treatment plot.

Mwayen pwa pou chak pasel eksperimantal yo.

Average weight for each of the experimental treatments.

Men mayi ki rekolte nan pasel ki te gen konpos ak mayi ki te rekolte nan temwen nan.

Here is the harvest from the parcel with compost and the control.

Men kek lot bagay ou ka fè ak konpos la.

Here are some other things that can be done with the compost.

Teren futbol yo.

Soccer fields.

Plante pye bwa.

Tree planting.

Fe pepinyè.

Nurseries.

Manje pou pwason yo.

Fish food.

Jaden lakay (agrikilti ibèn)

Household gardens in urban areas.

Jaden kominotè.

Community gardens.

Pou plante pye bwa ak jenes yo.

Youth tree planting.

 


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