Further Reading

Outside of SOIL’s own publications, there are countless resources on ecological sanitation solutions. Check out some that we’ve found to be particularly helpful:



Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation. Richard G. Feachem, David J. Bradley, Hemda Garelick, D. Duncan Mara. World Health Organization, 1980.

Assessment of Social Acceptance and Scope of Scaling Up Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets in Kenya. S. M. N. Uddin, V. S. Muhandiki, J. Fukuda, M. Nakamura and A. Sakai. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 2012. Available at: www.iwaponline.com.

Effects of Organic Matter Amendments on Net Primary Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in annual grasslands.Rebecca Ryals and Whendee L. Silver. 2013. Ecological Applications 23:46–59. Available at: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/12-0620.1

Evaluation of Microbial Health Risks Associated with the Reuse of Source-Separated Human Urine. Caroline Schönning. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control. EcoSanRes, 2002.

Evaluation of SOIL Latrine Waste Composting in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Berendes, Knee et. al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013. Available for download here.

Global Challenges in Water, Sanitation and Health. Christine L. Moe and Richard D. Rheingans. Journal of Water and Health 0.4.Suppl. Center for Global Safe Water, Rollins School of Public Health, IWA Publishing. Atlanta, 2006.

Guidelines for the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. Caroline Schönning and Thor Axel Stenström. EcoSanRes Publication Series. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), 2004.

Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta, and Greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. World Health Organization, 2006. Available at: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/wastewater/gsuweg4/en/index.html

Increasing Financial Flows for Urban Sanitation. World Water Council. 2018. Available for download here. 

Lessons Learned from the Dissemination of Biodigesters for Sanitation in Haiti, from 2010 to 2013. Norwegian Church Aid, 2014. Available here.

Microbial Exposure and Health Assessments in Sanitation Technologies and Systems. Thor Axel Stenström, Razak Seidu, Nelson Ekane, and Christian Zurbrügg. Stockholm  Environment Institute EcoSanRes Series, 2011.

Occurrence and Fate of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in Biosolids. Kang Xia, Alok Bhandari, Keshav Das, and Greg Pillar. Journal of Environmental Quality(34):91-104. Feb 2005. Available at acsess.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2134/jeq2005.0091

On Manures–Their Use and Composition. Cuthbert William Johnson, Esq. The British Farmer’s Magazine, 1840. Available at Google Books

One Fly Is Deadlier than 100 Tigers: Total Sanitation as a Business and Community Action in Bangladesh and Elsewhere. Urs Heierli, Jaime Frias. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC. Berne, 2007. Available at: www.ircwash.org/resources/one-fly-deadlier-100-tigers-total-sanitation-business-and-community-action-bangladesh-and

Operation and Mainenance of Sustainable Sanitation Systems. Version 2. Elke Müllegger, Günter Langergraber, Elisabeth Freiberger, Jennifer McConville, Margriet Samwel, Christian Rieck, Pippa Scott. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) c/o German Technical Cooperation Agency, Eschborn, 2010.

Practical Guidance on the Use of Urine in Crop Production. Anna Richert, Robert Gensch, Håkan Jönsson, Thor-Axel Stenström and Linus Dagerskog. Stockholm Environment Institute, EcoSanRes Series, 2010-1.  Available at: www.ecosanres.org/pdf_files/ESR2010-1-PracticalGuidanceOnTheUseOfUrineInCropProduction.pdf

Pathogen Destruction and Solids Decomposition in Composting Latrines: Study of Fundamental Mechanisms and User Operation in Rural Panama. Jessica Mehl, Josephine Kaiser, Daniel Hurtado, Daragh A. Gibson, Ricardo Izurieta and James R. Mihelcic. Journal of Water and Health 09.1, 2011.

Paving the Way to Scaling up: Factors Contributing to the Adoption of Eco-San Toilets and Safety of Humanure in Malawi. Peter Morgan and Aselefech Tesfaye Mekonnen. SHARE Research, 2013. Available at: www.shareresearch.org/LocalResources/Morgan_and_Mekonnen_2013_Paving_the_Way_to_Scaling_Up_Ecosan.pdf

Public Awareness and Mobilisation for Ecosanitation. Madeleen Wegelin-Schuringa. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, 2000.

Sanitation Markets at the Bottom of the Pyramid: A Win-Win Scenario for Government, the Private Sector, and Communities. Malva Baskovich. Water and Sanitation Program, 2011. Available at http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/WSP-Sanitation-Markets-Bottom-Pyramid-Peru.pdf

Technology Review of Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (UDDTs): Design Principles, Urine and Faeces Management. Christian Rieck, Dr. Elisabeth von Muench. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). Eschborn, May 2011. Available at: www.susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=874

The Potential of a Low Cost Technology for the Greywater Treatment. Francis W. Kariuki*, Kiplagat Kotut and Victor G. Ngángá. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, p32-39, 2011.

What Happens When the Pit is Full? Developments in On-Site Faecal Sludge Management (FSM). Water Information Network – South Africa (WIN-SA); Water Research Commission. FSM Seminar 14-15 March 2011, Durban, South Africa.


Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies. Robert Gensch, Amy Jennings, Samuel Renggli, Philippe Reymond, 2018. Available at: http://washcluster.net/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/02/emergency-sanitation-compendium.pdf

Introduction to Low Cost Sanitation Manual. CAWST, 2011. http://resources.cawst.org/package/introduction-low-cost-sanitation-manual_en

Construction of Ecological Sanitation Latrine. WaterAid Nepal, 2011. Available at: www.wateraid.org/…/…construction_of_ecological_sanitation_latrine_september_2011.pdf

Ecological Sanitation: Revised and Enlarged. Uno Winblad, Mayling Simpson-Hébert, Editors and co-authors. Stockholm Environmental Institute, 2004. Available at: wiki.umn.edu/pub/EWB/Uganda/SIDAGuidebook.pdf

Handbook on Community-Led Total Sanitation. Kamal Kar with Robert Chambers. Plan International (UK), 2008. Available in English, French, Spanish, Hindi and Bengali (with links to Portugese and Khmer translations and Arabic available soon) at: www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/resource/handbook-community-led-total-sanitation

Low-Cost Sustainable Sanitation Solutions for Mindanao and the Philippines: A Practical Construction Field Guide. Robert Gensch, Analiza Miso, Gina Itchon, Elmer Sayre. Xavier University Press, 2010.

The Arborloo Book: How to Make a Simple Pit Toilet and Grow Trees or Make Humus for the Garden. Peter Morgan. 2004. Located at: www.ecosanres.org/pdf_files/PM_Report/Appendix1_The_Arborloo_book_a.pdf

Where There is No Doctor. Hesperian Health Guides. Available in many languages at: hesperian.org/books-and-resources/Chapter 32: Water and Sanitation: Keys to Staying Healthy. Available at: en.hesperian.org/hhg/New_Where_There_Is_No_Doctor:Toilets_for_Health_(Sanitation)

UD Toilets and Composting Toilets in Emergency Settings. OXFAM Technical Brief – EcoSan Latrine Construction, 2009.


Toilets that Make Compost: Low-Cost, Sanitary Toilets That Produce Valuable Compost for Crops in an African Context. Peter Morgan. 2007. Available in English and French at: http://www.ecosanres.org/toilets_that_make_compost.htm

The Humanure Handbook: A Guide to Composting Human Manure, Third Edition. Joe Jenkins. Joe Jenkins, Inc., 2005. Available in English, French, Spanish, Finnish, German, Hebrew, Korean, Italian, Mongolian, Vietnamese, Norwegian, Slovenian, Cambodian and Portugese at: www.josephjenkins.com

The Rodale Book of Composting: Easy Methods for Every Gardener. Gracy Gershuny. Rodale Books, 1992.

The Challenges of Urban Ecological Sanitation: Lessons from the Erdos Eco-Town Project. Arno Rosemarin, Jennifer McConville, Amparo Flores and Zhu Qiang. Practical Action Publishing, 2012.

Shit Matters: The Potential of Community-Led Total Sanitation. Edited by Lyla Mehta and Synne Movik. Practical Action Publishing, 2010.

On Social Entrepreneurship 

In the Business of ChangeHow Social Entrepreneurs are Disrupting Business as Usual. Elisa Birnbaum. New Society Publishers, 2018. https://www.newsociety.com/Books/I/In-the-Business-of-Change


Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation: Water, Sanitation & Hygiene: www.gatesfoundation.org/watersanitationhygiene/Pages/home.aspx

Centre Régional pour l’Eau Potable et l’Assainissement à Faible Coût (CREPA or Center for Low Cost Water and Sanitation): www.reseaucrepa.org

Deustche Gesellschaft fϋr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ): www.gtz.de/en/themen/8524.htm

Direction Nationale de l’Eau Potable et de l’Assainissement (DINEPA): www.dinepa.gouv.ht

Eawag: www.eawag.ch/index_EN

Ecological Sanitation Research Programme: www.ecosanres.org

Give Love: givelove.org

Hesperian Health Guides: hesperian.org

Improve Your Garden and Yard with Composting: mjjsales.com/improve-your-garden-and-yard-with-composting-2.html

Inodoroseco: http://inodoroseco.blogspot.com/

Public Hygeine Lets Us Stay Human (PHLUSH): phlush.org

Humanitarian Response Haiti: haiti.humanitarianresponse.info

Sandec: www.sandec.ch

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA): www.susana.org

Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management: www.sswm.info

U.S. Composting Council: compostingcouncil.org

World Toilet Organization (WTO): www.worldtoilet.org/wto

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